Welcome to VOA Radiogram program 8.

Today's program will begin with VOA News stories in MFSK32,
including one MFSK32 image.

The MFSK32 stories will be followed by a VOA News story in
MFSK64.

Finally, we will transmit an image using the slow scan television
(SSTV) Scottie DX mode. One of several software packages that can
decode Scottie DX is RX-SSTV from
users.belgacom.net/hamradio/rxsstv.htm


Please send reception reports to radiogram@voanews.com

And visit voaradiogram.net

Twitter: @VOARadiogram

The first of the VOA News stories in the MFSK32 mode will be in
Spanish and, as such, will include letters with accents marks.
Please let us know if the accent marks appear correctly on your
display.



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This is VOA Radiogram in MFSK32

VOA NEWS

Descubren 3 planetas teóricamente habitables

Voz de América - Redacción
18.04.2013

Científicos de la agencia espacial estadounidense (NASA)
anunciaron este jueves el descubrimiento de tres lejanos
planetas, fuera de nuestro sistema solar, con condiciones
potenciales para albergar vida.

Los tres cuerpos celestes se hallan en lo que los astrónomos
denominan "zona habitable", a una distancia determinada de la
estrella más cercana de manera que su temperatura y órbita le
permitan poseer agua en estado líquido.

Fueron hallados por el satélite de la NASA "Kepler" que escudriña
el espacio sideral y tiene en su campo visual a más de 150 mil
estrellas en busca de lugares como La Tierra.

Dos de ellos, llamados Kepler-62e y Kepler-62f, aparecen
descritos en una investigación publicada en la revista científica
Science e integran un sistema de cinco planetas que orbitan su
propio sol: Kepler-62. El tercero, no incluido en el estudio, se
nombra Kepler-69c.

La estrella-sol de este último , Kepler-69, se halla a 2 mil 700
años luz de nosotros, mientras que la de los dos primeros,
Kepler-62, está a mil 200 años luz (el equivalente de un año luz
es aproximadamente casi 10 billones de kilómetros).

Se estima que Kepler-62e es 60 por ciento más grande que La
Tierra y el equivalente de su año solar sería de 267,3 días.
Kepler-62f es 40 por ciento más grande que nuestro planeta, con
un año más corto (122,4 días).

http://www.voanoticias.com/content/nasa_planeta_kepler/1644435.html

VOA RADIOGRAM

 


VOA NEWS

Robotic Fly Mimics Real Life Insect

Rosanne Skirble
May 02, 2013

A team of engineers at Harvard University has taken cues from
Nature to create the first robotic fly. The mechanical bug has
become a platform for a suite of new high-tech integrated
systems.

A team of engineers designed a robot to do what a fly does
naturally. The tiny machine is the size of a fat housefly. It's
agile and fast. Its miniature flapping wings allow it to hover in
place and perform controlled flight maneuvers.

"It's extremely important for us to think about this as a whole
system and not just the sum of a bunch of individual parts," said
Robert Wood.

Harvard engineering professor Robert Wood has been working on the
robotic fly project for over a decade. A few years ago, his team
at Harvard's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering
got the go-ahead to start piecing together the components.

"The added difficulty with a project like this is that literally
none of those components are off the shelf and so we have to
develop them all from scratch," he said.

They engineered a propulsion system with wings, tiny actuators to
drive the wings, and a mechanism to maintain proper wing
alignment.

"The seemingly simple system which just flaps the wings has a
number of interdependencies on the individual components, each of
which individually has to perform well, but then has to be
matched well to everything it's connected to," said Wood.

The flight apparatus was integrated into a set of power,
computation, sensing and control systems. Wood says the success
of the project proves that the flying robot with these
miniaturized components can be built and manufactured.

While this prototype robotic flyer is tethered to a small,
off-board power source, the goal is eventually to make it
autonomous, so that it might someday perform surveillance and
data- gathering work at rescue sites, in farmers' fields or on
the battlefield.

"Otherwise the fly is totally unconstrained. Basically it can
take off, land and fly around," he said.

Wood says the design offers a new way to study flight mechanics
and control at insect-scale. Yet, the power, sensing and
computation technologies on board could have much broader
applications.

"You can start thinking about using them to answer open
scientific questions, you know, to study biology in ways that
would be difficult with the animals, but instead using these
robots," he said. "So there's a host of technologies and open
interesting scientific questions that are really what drives us
on a day to day basis."

Wood says that while he finds real flies to be annoying little
bugs, curiosity and awe at their mechanics inspired his design.
He and his colleagues describe their work in an article in this
week's edition of the journal Science.

http://www.voanews.com/content/robotic-fly-mimics-real-life-insect/1653557.html

MFSK32 photo follows: With a tiny carbon fiber body and wings
made of thin plastic sheets, this robotic fly was inspired by the
way real insects move. The wings are controlled by a minuscule
flight muscle or ‘actuator’ that drives wing movement when a
voltage is applied. (By the Wood lab)






Sending Pic:256x144C;



http://www.rhci-online.de/voa-robotic-fly.png






VOA NEWS

Colliding Galaxies Offer View into Universe's Past

May 01, 2013

NASA has released a new image of two massive galaxies colliding.

According to NASA, the collision has stirred up a giant cloud of
hot gas surrounding the galaxies, details of which are emerging
thanks to Chandra, a powerful x-ray telescope. The cloud could
contain the mass equivalent of 10 billion of our suns, and it
spans 300,000 light years. The temperature is more than seven
million degrees Kelvin.

Within the cloud, NASA says there has been a "baby boom" of new
stars in the system known as NGC 6240, which is some 400 million
light years away. Many of the new stars evolved rapidly and
subsequently exploded as supernovae.

The colliding galaxies are similar to the Milky Way, the galaxy
containing Earth, according to NASA, and each has a black hole at
the center. Scientists believe the two galaxies will eventually
form one elliptical galaxy, but the process will take millions of
years.

NASA says the NGC 6240 region offers a rare chance to view an
event that was common early in the Universe's existence when
galaxies were closer together and the chances of collisions were
greater.

In the photo, the gas is colored purple. The image has been
combined with optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope to
better display the movement of the colliding galaxies.

http://www.voanews.com/content/xray-view-provides-insight-into-co
lliding-galaxies/1652791.html

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Please send reception reports to radiogram@voanews.com

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Next on VOA Radiogram, a VOA news story in MFSK64 (240 wpm), 3:35...



This is VOA Radiogram in MFSK64

VOA NEWS

Thunderstorms Generate Mysterious 'Dark Lightning'

Rick Pantaleo
May 01, 2013

Have you ever heard of "dark lightning?" Few people outside the
scientific community have, but it is something real that is
actually quite powerful - and possibly dangerous. A group of
scientists in Florida has been learning about this mysterious
natural phenomenon:

We all know what thunderstorms are, and how much havoc their
violent winds, torrential rains and lightning strikes can cause.
But over the past 10 years, scientists have learned of an even
darker side to thunderstorms: they can generate powerful bursts
of electromagnetic energy known as Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes,
or TGFs.

"A few years back, a spacecraft started seeing these bursts of
gamma rays coming up from the Earth’s atmosphere," said Joseph
Dwyer. "It was very strange. The Earth is not supposed to make
gamma rays. If you want to study gamma rays you usually look for
places like black holes and supernovas. We figured out eventually
that these gamma rays were coming from ordinary thunderstorms."

Professor Joseph Dwyer and his colleagues at the Florida
Institute of Technology have been researching so-called "dark
lightning" for several years. Dwyer says that while the
phenomenon is quite different from what we see flashing brightly
in the sky during a thunderstorm, the two types of high-energy
events can be produced by the same storms, but in different ways.

"Normal lightning is very hot," he said. "It’s about five times
as hot as the surface of the sun and because of that emits a lot
of light. But, compared to the gamma ray energy scale, it’s
downright cold. So normal lightning is not hot enough to make
the kind of gamma rays we’ve been seeing and so we needed some
other explanation. What we now think is going on is that a
thunderstorm acts like a gigantic particle accelerator. Strong
fields inside the thunderstorm accelerate electrons to almost the
speed of light and then they make the gamma-rays."

A tremendous amount of energy is released in dark lightning, yet
its powerful discharge is silent, and almost completely invisible
to the unaided eye.

Scientists have been concerned that since these gamma-ray bursts
can originate at the same altitudes where commercial aircraft
fly, they could damage the planes and jeopardize the safety of
airline passengers. But Dwyer points to a couple of factors that
minimize those dangers.

"First of all, pilots do their best to stay away from
thunderstorms," said Dwyer. "Thunderstorms are dangerous places;
we all know that already, so no additional warning is needed.
And the second piece of good news is dark lightning appears to be
relatively rare, maybe one out of every thousand normal lightning
flashes would be dark lightning. So combining those two, people
should not be worrying about this."

Dwyer notes that astronauts peering down from Earth-orbiting
spacecraft have reported that these gamma-ray producing storms
occur most often around the equatorial regions of the planet.
Dwyer says that could be because storms in those areas tend to be
taller, higher-altitude thunderstorms, so their gamma-rays are
bursting closer to space - and more visibly to the astronauts -
since there’s less atmosphere for the light to pass through.

Dwyer says that in general, any thunderstorm should be capable of
generating dark lightning. He says he and his colleagues are
still not certain what’s happening inside a thunderstorm that
makes one storm more likely than another to generate the
gamma-ray discharges, so more research on dark lightning is
needed.

"It would be very nice to have instruments that were specifically
designed to measure what we’re interested in studying," he said.
"Now, we’re talking about something that’s happening right over
our heads that could affect people, that may be relatively common
and so it would be very interesting to learn more about this."

The researchers say new data from special Earth-observing
satellites will help them better understand dark lightning. And
while studies of the phenomenon continue, Professor Dwyer’s
research has found no evidence yet that the mysterious gamma-ray
bursts in thunderstorms pose any direct threat to public health
or the environment.

http://www.voanews.com/content/thunderstorms-generate-mysterious-dark-lightning/1652547.html

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Please send reception reports to radiogram@voanews.com

And visit voaradiogram.net







Next on VOA Radiogram, a slow scan television (SSTV) image using
the Scottie DX mode. The photo is a curtain antenna array at the
Edward R Murrow shortwave transmitting station in North Carolina.
This SSTV transmission will be 4:32 ...

http://www.rhci-online.de/2013-05-11_19-38-58--RX-SSTV_(without_Noise_Filter).jpg

http://www.rhci-online.de/2013-05-11_19-38-58--MMSSTV_(with_M5-Noise_Filter).jpg

 


Please send reception reports to radiogram@voanews.com

And visit voaradiogram.net

Twitter: @VOARadiogram

Thanks to colleagues at the Edward R Murrow shortwave transmitting station in North Carolina.

I'm Kim Elliott. Please join us for the next VOA Radiogram.

This is VOA, the Voice of America.